Sweeteners and gluconates

In corn process industry most of the corn starch was further process to many kinds of sweeteners. And the starch sweetener take a very big market share in modern sweetener market. Compare to cane sugar, the main properties of starch sweeterner is as follows:

1.Sweetening power

Cane sugar is the common sweetener. In case of the sweetening power of white sugar is 100, the sweetening power of starch sweetener is as follows:

sweetener

sugar

dextrose

fructose

maltose

Glucose syrup DE 42

Glucose syrup DE 62 

HFCS F42

HFCS F55

Relative sweetening power

100

70

180

50

50

60

100

110

 

sweetener

HFCS F90

sorbitol

glycerol

Maltitol

lactose

semilactose

Relative sweetening powder

140

50

80

90

40

60

 

The sweetening power is affected by many kinds of items, especially concentration. In low concentration the sweetening power of glucose solution is lower than cane sugar. But the difference is reduced along with rising of concentration. Sweetening power of 12.7% glucose solution is equal to 10.0% sugar solution. The sweetening power of 21.8% glucose solution is equal to 20% cane sugar solution. 31.5% glucose solution is equal to 30.0% sugar solution. The sweetening power is same for above 40% solution. In generally we say the sweetening power of dextrose is lower is on condition of lower concentration.

2. Crystal

Cane sugar easy to become crystal and become big grits. Glucose syrup is the mixture of glucose, oligosshacaride and maltodextrin. So it cannot become crystal and prevent cane sugar become crystal. It is very important for this difference in application. For example, it cannot use cane sugar only for hard candy. When boil to water content below 1.5% and cool, sugar is easy to become crystal and chip so it cannot get hard and transparent product. The old hard candy manufacture method is that add organic acid to boiled cane sugar and convert a part of sugar to invert sugar   ( about 10-15%) to prevent crystal of sugar. The new hard candy manufacture is mix 30-40% DE42 maltose syrup to prevent crystal of sugar. The technology process is simple and efficient. Maltose syrup don’t content fructose and lower moisture so the hard candy is easy to store. Maltose syrup content a part of maltodextrin so it can make candy tough, stronger and more viscous to prevent chip. But it also cannot use superfluous maltose syrup to prevent affect the crisp. It can use more maltose syrup if DE value is higher than 55. The sweetening power of maltose is lower so it can dilute the sweetening power of cane sugar to make the candy mild sweet and tasty.

3.Moisture and keep moisture

Moisture regain is property of water absorption in higher air humidity condition. Dextrose monohydrate absorb water in condition of humidity above 60%. It become quick along with humidity going up. The crystal start thaw when water content 15-18. The moisture regain is more stronger for dextrose anhydrous and will become dextrose monohydrate after absorbing water. It will need 30-60 minutes from dextrose monohydrate to dextrose anhydrous. If the surface of crystal of dextrose anhydrous accrete very small dextrose monohydrate crystal the absorption will become far quick and 1-8 minutes is enough from dextrose anhydrous to dextrose monohydrate.

Different food require different moisture regain and different moisture maintain raw materials of sweetener. Such as, hard candy need lower moisture regain and prevent thaw due to absorb water in moist weather. So it is suitable to use white sugar and low and middle invert sugar. But soft candy require keep some moisture to prevent become dry in dry weather so it is suitable to use high invert sugar and fructose-glucose syrup. The food of bread and cake also require keep soft so it is suitable to use high invert sugar and fructose-glucose syrup. The moisture regain of fructose is the highest.

Sorbitol is produced by hydrogenation from dextrose and have good moisture regain property. It is widely used in industries of food, tobacco and textile. The efficiency is better than glycerin.

4.Pervasion Pressure

Although sweetener is not disinfector but the high concentration of syrup can prevent growth of many kinds of microbe. Sugar preserve is an important preserve method for food, such as jam and confect. It is because the pervasion pressure of syrup can absorb the water from the body of microbe and prevent their growth. The pervasion pressure of monosaccharide is about 2 times of disaccharide because the molecular number of monosaccharide is about 2 times of disaccharide in same concentration solution. Glucose and fructose is monosaccharide and relative molecular weight is 180 so the pervasion pressure is higher than cane sugar (relative molecular weight is 342). So the efficiency of preserve food is better than cane sugar. The syrup prevent growth of microbe vary for different microbe. 50% Cane sugar solution can prevent growth of common yeast. It will need 65% and 80% to prevent growth of bacteria and mold. The ingredients of fructose-glucose syrup is fructose and glucose so the pervasion pressure is higher so it is better to preserve.

5. Metabolize

The sugar in blood of human body is glucose and it’s content is 80-100mg/100mL. It will become higher within 1 hour of dinner and after will reduce gradually for about 90 minutes to common level. Blood sugar is controlled by insulin. Because of disorder of insulin excretion of diabetic , they cannot produce enough insulin and cause high blood sugar after dinner. So diabetic must control the consumption of starch and starch sweetener. Fructose metabolize don’t rely on insulin.

Glucose can be absorbed directly by human body without digestion so it is suitable for patients eat and suitable for inject to their blood for urgent need. It is usually inject together with normal saline because besides need to supply sugar the body also need supply sodium and chloride to maintain the humoral balance when body lose lot of water. Fructose, sorbitol and xylitol metabolize don’t rely on insulin so it is suitable for the sweetener used by diabetic suppling same quantity of heat as glucose. The microbe in mouth can produce acid substance from sugar and cause decayed tooth. But fructose is not easy to make use by this kind of microbe so the disadvantage is smaller than cane sugar. And xylitol is free from used by this kind of microbe so it cannot cause decayed tooth and suitable for candy, especially chewing gum.

6. Viscosity

The viscosity of dextrose and fructose is lower than cane sugar. But the viscosity of syrup is higher so it is suitable for many kinds of food to enhance the thickness and taste. Such as canned fruit, juice beverage, etc. The maltose syrup is suitable for ice cream especially low invert syrup to enhance the thickness. The viscosity of maltose syrup is lower when enhance invert proportion.

7. Ice point reduction

The reduction extent of ice point of sugar solution rely on concentration and relative molecular weight. High concentrate and small relative molecular weight make for ice point reduce more. Ice point of glucose reduce more than cane sugar. Ice point of glucose-maltose syrup vary extent of transform, more transform and more reduce.

8. Chemical stability

Glucose, fructose and maltose syrup have deoxidization so the stability is low in medium and alkaline environment and easy to become colored substance when it is heated. It is also easy to cause pyrogenic reaction with protein and produce special tasty brown caramel. Pyrogenic reaction is helpful for some food and harmful for another foods. Sweetener is stable in acid environment. Glucose is most stable in PH 3 and fructose is most stable in PH 3.3 .

The higher moisture is helpful for bread and cake to keep water and don’t easy to become dry. For hard candy light color is good so it need heat stable sugar, such as glucose-maltose syrup and high maltose syrup. High maltose content 60% is especially suitable for hard candy production. The boiling temperature is 130℃ in case of using medium transform sugar (DE value 42) while the boiling temperature will rise to 155℃ if using high maltose syrup. Hydrogenated syrup has more higher heat stability and cannot change color when heat with nitrous substance. And it has more higher sweet and low viscosity.

9. Fermentation

The yeast can ferment glucose, fructose, maltose and sugar but it cannot ferment big molecular oligosaccharide and maltodextrin. So the suitable materials for ferment food and non ferment food.

10.Anti-oxidation

Sugar solution has anti-oxidation which is helpful to keep fruit taste, color and vitamin C. The reason is oxygen content in sugar solution is far lower than oxygen content in water. It can reduce the oxidation of vitamin C for 10-90% and the oxidation extent vary different PH and other conditions.

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